Part I of the epistemological Model: physics to chemistry

Levels 1-3 of the Model describe the relationships of the subjects of study from particle physics to chemistry. But before I start with the first elements of the Model, I must mention what precedes them. Steven Hawking and his followers argue that all particles are preceded by some unknowable state that led to the Big Bang. This state is a singularity, and it is like a particle that contains all particles of the universe. Cosmic background radiation is interpreted as an early result of this state along with the observable universe. Hawking described this state by extending Einstein’s special relativity on the quantum level to what preceded the quantum level, namely, the microscopic singularity, the kind that physicists try to understand in particle collision experiments. On the cosmic level, such singularity is simultaneous throughout all of space.

From another perspective, the followers of the esoteric Urantia Book claim that more fundamental to known particles is Paradise, the gravitational center and nucleus of particles called ultimatons, 100 of which supposedly make up an electron. Quantum physicists, on the other hand, desire to find such fundamental particles called gravitons, but they cannot find them, maybe because they are not actually colliding fundamental particles of currently unknown structures. Instead, the collider experiments involve composite particles, called hadrons, in particular – protons.

Metaphysics of Nonexistence

My metaphysical interpretation of the pre-quantum level has to do with the first critical point of the Model, the critical point which later differentiates into energy and particles. This point has always been there and always will be there concurrent with any physical states, and yet like the Big Bang singularity it is only the moment of the Big Bang and not the state of the Universe at another time. This point is eternal in the always present moment of time like Paradise of The Urantia Book. It is the pure, true present moment, eternal time without space. Nothing can exist exactly in this moment, but everything can exist in the past or the future, somewhere outside of the moment, as illusory as anything else that exists is. Thus all distortions of spacetime are caused by Nonexistence, and each of the two points of view is essentially illusory to its opposite.

Nonexistence is the present moment of time without space. All of our spacetime is somewhere around this eternal center. Even our present moment of time we can never catch, it is always fleeting, always past, in the past, but never in the present because there is no true present moment. Our spacetime is an illusion from the perspective of Nonexistence. But here is the catch – Nonexistence is neither conscious nor pre-conscious and can never be completely grasped by consciousness. That is why we should not move toward Nonexistence in order to understand it but should move away from it. The first level of the Model follows Nonexistence.

Level 1: Particle and Energy

Particle  Energy

The first differentiation from Nonexistence is the first context – Energy. This energy is called quantum vacuum or zero-point energy. It is best visualized in this presentation. Fragments in this state of plasma are bosons and fermions, fundamental particles of variable spins and masses, seen in the standard model of particle physics. Although quantum physicists accept contradictions by interpreting fermions, in particular electrons, as waves, or non-particles, the conclusions derived from the double split experiment may be something quite else. If there is invisible energy in space where particles travel, then these particles necessarily interact with the energy, either slowed down by it or moved in particular directions.

The Urantia Book offers this interpretation of an electron in the experiment: “The excitation of the content of space produces a wavelike reaction to the passage of rapidly moving particles of matter, just as the passage of a ship through water initiates waves of varying amplitude and interval” (529). This interpretation would still lead to all the experimental results but will keep the logical continuity, that is, once a particle – always a particle, except when annihilated and completely returned to the energy. Thus, particles, with their spins and/or masses always condense from energy.

Level 2: Atom and Field

Atom  Field

Other interesting things happen when particles through contextual energy unite into composite particles, aka hadrons, such as baryons, in the new context of fields. Hydrogen nucleus is a proton singled out by ionization of a hydrogen atom and used in the collider experiments (see photo). So, really, the experiments are done with atoms (i.e., ions) rather than actual fundamental particles. Hydrogen, being the first in the periodic table of elements, is used to help nuclear physicists understand the kinds of fundamental forces that bind the atomic nuclei. These experiments led to our discovery of the strong force. The strong force is much more powerfully expressed in nuclear explosions using much bigger atoms, uranium or plutonium.

particle collision

An analyzed collision of two protons at CERN (source: http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/the-curious-wavefunction)

The only reason that level 1 is currently the most fundamental in the Model is that science only practices eliminating atomic structures, not being advanced enough to work directly with fundamental particles. The external field that binds atoms together is electroweak force, which is a combination of weak and electromagnetic forces. The waves that particle interactions cause in energy also cause fields, such as the electromagnetic field. In such fields, particles act like individuals magnets. Some atoms, like iron, also act similarly, but on a more massive scale. As atoms interact and search for the lowest energy states within available fields, their bindings happen and condense into a higher context. This leads to the creation of molecules within lattices.

Level 3: Molecule and Lattice

Molecule  Lattice

Inorganic and organic chemists study reactions that occur on molecular level. The reactions are based on the behaviors of atoms based on their structures. This level also contains, based on temperature, distances, and other factors, the three states of matter: gas, liquid, and solid. The patterns of positions of atoms within molecules in a solid state are studied by crystallographers through x-ray scattering techniques. The lattices are contexts for molecules to progress through specific crystal structures and end up creating organic structures, such as the DNA. Level 3 is the last inorganic level before organic levels take over and start forming the first basic living organisms.

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