Part IV of the epistemological Model: astronomy to cosmology

Levels 11-14 of the Model describe relations of the subjects of study from bioastronomy to cosmology. This is the second quad. Its content is basically reflected when we look at the night sky and beyond.

Level 11: Sphere and System

Sphere System

Similar to Vernadsky’s theory of noosphere, Sphere is a communicative system established by collaborative programs of coalitions of intelligent races. It transcends individual races and worlds like the Internet transcends individual bodies and environments only on a much greater scale and using much more sophisticated technologies. In my understanding, there are different spheres that can be created. Generally, I look at them as hubs positioned within internal planetary structures and, to reflect and buffer signals, using artificial satellites and moons that serve as repeaters over intergalactic spaces. Various interplanetary and intergalactic coalitions may have their own spheres that can network into an “ultra-sphere” connecting many intelligent races throughout the universe. This is more like a civilization of Type II or III on the Kardashev Scale. Such spheres may also be using a different type of matter and energy than is currently known in order to overcome limitations of the speed of light.

The Urantia Book mentions an interstitial physical state called morontia, which is between basic matter/energy and spiritual state. In modern physics, a concept that correlates with morontia is dark matter. This type of invisible matter also constitutes the morontia worlds, also known as spheres. Although all these concepts may not refer to the same things, they are interesting to study in order to better understand this level.

The system is the solar system of spheres. Once a sphere harmoniously transfers large amounts of data and energy, it can lead to transforming the planet into a star. The internal core may expand magma that in turn overcomes the surface core. Such evolutionary world joins the center of a solar system and grows to become a true star.

Level 12: Star and Nebula

Star Nebula

Although planets are considered growing stars because of their extremely hot and dense center cores, planets only reflect light. In this regard, planets are similar to other stellar bodies, like our moon, which only reflect light from their cool surfaces. Stars, on the other hand, are different from planets, asteroids, moons, comets, and other related stellar objects, because stars generate great amounts of light through complex thermal processes within their cores, and the products of these processes are able escape through the photospheres, potentially getting entangled in plasmic fields. Planets and similar objects form from stars (see photo below). Stars, in turn, form from greater scale nebulae, or cloud of dust particles in space. There are also different kinds of such nebulae. For example, nebulae that are called dark mostly absorb rather than reflect visible light. Our Milky Way galaxy is a nebula with a massive object in its center that does not reflect light. This object, somewhere in the vicinity of Sagittarius A, is considered by scientists to be a black hole. Around this black hole there are one hundred billion stars that orbit in our galaxy.

sun disc

A recent photograph from ALMA, the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array–a high-technology telescope (retrieved from http://www.almaobservatory.org/en/press-room/press-releases/771-revolutionary-alma-image-reveals-planetary-genesis)

Level 13: Hole and Cluster

Hole Cluster

Stars go through different stages, combining increasingly heavy elements in their cores. Stars that mature and explode into supernova have their outer surface expand through space and contribute to the formation of new nebulae. The center of such a star that remains is a growing (stellar mass) black hole that is many times greater than the mass of a single sun. But the (supermassive) black holes that are in the centers of the most known galaxies have masses of hundreds of thousands to billions of stars. All these black holes are surrounded by star clusters and constitute galactic clusters. The holes drive their galactic systems and move in particular directions within superclusters. Such supermassive black holes come from stars that exploded; they grew in a star cluster pulling other star clusters around them, thus becoming galactic centers. This way the star clusters unite around such single gravitational loci points. Nonetheless, we have never observed the formation of a supermassive black hole from a stellar mass black hole. The connection is there, though, since these are all species of black holes.

Level 14: Attractor and Cosmos

Attractor Cosmos

Cosmos, from Ancient Greek word for “order,” is the observable universe in which we live. Most of energy and mass of the universe belongs to something that is invisible to us. The invisible matter, called dark matter, surrounds nebulae as those surround black holes. Thus, there is a possible link to dark matter through black holes. Nonetheless, dark matter stretches far and wide connecting galaxies in an intricate web (see the image below).

pretty cosmic web

European Southern Observatory’s Very Large Telescope discovered alignments of quasars shown on this simulation of large scale structure (retrieved from http://www.eso.org/public/usa/news/eso1438/). The blue in the above photograph is the latest simulation of dark matter distribution among nebulae, quasars (very bright galaxies), clusters, and superclusters. The spaces between the veins represent cosmic voids or supervoids.

Black holes align their corresponding nebulae in an orderly arrangement going toward or away from even more massive objects, such as our Great Attractor. The Attractor is many thousands of times more massive than the supermassive black hole in the center of our galaxy. We have found it at the center of our Laniakea Supercluster. We have been able to see the structure of our supercluster defined in a model made by astronomers in September 2014. Laniakea boggles one’s mind with its size: it contains one hundred thousand galaxies! And there are a hundred billion more galaxies in the observable universe! While the Attractor is interwoven into the intricate, orderly web of cosmic space we call Cosmos, we have yet to learn about the central singularity from which all of this developed.

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